A Brief Note on Oncology

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Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer. A medical professional who practices oncology is an oncologist. The name's etymological origin is the Greek word ὄγκος, meaning 1. "burden, volume, mass" and 2. "Barb", and the Greek word λόγος, meaning "study". The neoclassical term oncology was used from 1618, initially in neo-Greek, in cognizance of Galen's work on abnormal tumors, De tumoribus præter naturam.

Cancer survival has improved due to three main components: improved prevention efforts to reduce exposure to risk factors, improved screening of several cancers, and improvements in treatment.

Cancers are often managed through discussion on multi-disciplinary cancer conferences where medical oncologists, surgical oncologists, radiation oncologists, pathologists, radiologists, and organ-specific oncologists meet to find the best possible management for an individual patient considering the physical, social, psychological, emotional, and financial status of the patient. It is very important for oncologists to keep up-to-date with the latest advancements in oncology, as changes in the management of cancer are quite common.

Because a cancer diagnosis can cause distress and anxiety, clinicians may use a number of strategies such as SPIKES for delivering the bad news.

Tobacco exposure is the leading cause of cancer and death from it. Smoking tobacco is strongly associated with increased risk of cancers of the lung, larynx, mouth, esophagus, throat, brain, bladder, kidney, liver, stomach, pancreas, colon, rectum, cervix, and acute myeloid leukemia. Smokeless tobacco is associated with increased risks of cancers of the mouth, esophagus, and pancreas.

Alcohol consumption increases risk of cancers of the mouth, throat, esophagus, larynx, liver, and breast. The risk of cancer is much higher for those who drink alcohol and also use tobacco. Obese individuals have an increased risk of cancer of the breast, colon, rectum, endometrium, esophagus, kidney, pancreas, and gallbladder. Advanced age is a risk factor for many cancers. The median age of cancer diagnosis is 66 years. Cancer is caused by changes to certain genes that alter the way our cells function. Some of them are the result of environmental exposures that damage DNA. These exposures may include substances, such as the chemicals in tobacco smoke, or radiation, such as ultraviolet rays from the sun and other carcinogens.

Journal of Imaging and Interventional Radiology is the peer-reviewed journal of choice for interventional radiologists, radiologists, cardiologists, vascular surgeons, neurosurgeons, and other clinicians who seek current and reliable information on every aspect of interventional radiology.
Each issue in Journal of Imaging and Interventional Radiology covers critical and cutting-edge medical minimally invasive, clinical, basic research, radiological, pathological, and socioeconomic issues of importance to the field. The journal is a medium for original articles, reviews, pictorial essays, technical notes and case reports related to all fields of interventional radiology.

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Best wishes

Ann Jose

Journal coordinator

Journal of Imaging and Interventional Radiology

intervradiology@longdomjournal.org