On behalf of the Journal of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry, as Editor-in-Chief, it is my distinct honour and privilege to welcome you to the Journal of Environmental and Toxicology Studies.
The Journal of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry aims to disseminate knowledge and promote discussion through the publication of peer-reviewed, high quality research papers on all topics related to Chemistry. The open access journal is published by Insight Medical Publishing who hosts open access peer-reviewed journals as well as organizes conferences that hosts the work of researchers in a manner that exemplifies the highest standards in research integrity.
Here I want to discuss about toxicity and it effects. Toxicity of a substance is described by the types of effects it causes and its potency.
- Types of Effects: Different chemicals cause different effects. For example, Chemical A may cause vomiting, but not cancer. Chemical B may have no noticeable effects during exposure, but may cause cancer years later.
- Potency: Potency (strength) is a measure of a chemical's toxicity. A more potent chemical is more toxic. For example, sodium cyanide is more potent than sodium chloride (table salt) since swallowing a smaller amount of cyanide can poison you.
When a substance is absorbed into the body, its chemical structure may be changed or metabolized to a substance that is more toxic or less toxic. For some other chemicals, metabolism changes the chemical into a form that is more easily eliminated by the body.
- Exposure: A chemical can cause health effects only when it contacts or enters the body.
- Routes of Exposure: Exposure to a substance can occur by inhalation, ingestion or direct contact.
Inhalation (breathing) of gases, vapors, dusts or mists is a common route of exposure. They can become deposited in the airways or be absorbed by the lungs into the bloodstream. The blood can then carry these substances to the rest of the body.
Ingestion (swallowing) of food, drink or other substances is another route of exposure. Chemicals that get in or on food, cigarettes, utensils or hands can be swallowed. Lead in paint chips is a good example.
Direct contact (touching) with the skin or eyes is also a route of exposure. Broken, cut or cracked skin will allow substances to enter the body more easily. Breathing or swallowing lead can result in health effects, but touching lead is not harmful because lead isn't absorbed through the skin.
- Dose: The amount of a substance that enters or contacts a person is called a dose. An important consideration in evaluating a dose is body weight. For example, children are given smaller amounts of aspirin than adults because an adult dose is too large for a child's body weight.
The greater the amount of a substance a person is exposed to, the more likely that health effects will occur. For example, two aspirin tablets can help to relieve a headache, but taking an entire bottle of aspirin can cause stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, headache, convulsions or death.
- Exposure medium: Exposure to chemicals occurs when we breathe, eat or touch soil, water, food or air that contains chemicals. The amount of a chemical in the medium is called its concentration. Common ways of reporting concentrations are parts per million, milligrams per liter or milligrams per cubic meter.
For example, the average adult drinks about 2 liters (roughly quarts) of water and breathes about 20 cubic meters (roughly cubic yards) of air a day. If drinking water contains 1 milligram of lead per liter, then the person would take in a total of 2 milligrams of lead in a day.
- Length of exposure: Short-term exposure is called acute exposure. Long-term exposure is called chronic exposure. Either may cause health effects that are immediate or health effects that may not occur for some time.
We always welcome and encourage new research works on our Journal of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry. (Tap on the link to submit manuscript)
Journal of Organic & Inorganic Chemistry